The name (Sudan) was designated to the lands that were located Southern of the African Greater Desert which extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red sea and the Indian Ocean in the east. Nowadays, the said name is designated to the region which is located in the South of Egypt in the middle part of the Nile Basin. The name (Kosh) was also designated, in the Old Testament and the Assyrian texts to the same part of land, but the present name (Sudan) is the plural of a Greek word that means (black people).
Sudan is located in the northeastern part of Africa between the 22.4 latitude northern equator and 38.22 longitude. The country occupies the middle part between Africa and the Arab World which. Such a location distinguishes Sudan with a unique characteristic considering it the main passage between north and south of Africa. Sudan also was the main passage for the pilgrim and trade convoys that forward from the east of Africa to the Holy Lands until the mid of the current century. Total area of the Sudan is about one million miles square (about 2.5 million km square) which makes it one of the largest African countries and it comes ninth among the largest countries of the world. Sudan is the largest Arab and African country as its area constitutes 8.3% of the total area of Africa.
“The following countries neighbor Sudan:- Egypt, Libya, Chad, Central Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia across the Red Sea. Arable lands are estimated to be (200) Million Feddans (84) Million Hectares. ”
Airports, Airstrip and Seaports
There are (17) airports in Sudan of which (6) are international airports, the biggest one thereof is the Khartoum International Airport, which studies are currently made for transferring and reconstructing it, and (11) local airport distributed in the northern Sudan states, Atbara, Al-Fashir and others. There are (63) airstrips currently in the different parts of Sudan. The Red Sea is the only navigation outlet for Sudan to the external world. Port Sudan, Suakin, Awseif and Bashair are the Sudanese ports. Coast of the Red Sea is characterized by existence of coral phylums which provide lodging to different types of rare marine creatures.
Tropical climate, which is characterized by increase of heat degrees on most days of a year, being very dry in the far north then graduates to be semi-wet in the far south, prevails in Sudan. Annual rain rates range from almost zero in the far north to 500 mm in the central Sudan to more than 1500 mm in the far south of Sudan.
The River Nile, including all its various branches, plays an important role in the Sudan’s economic, social and cultural life and in its foreign relationships. Water of the River Nile and all its various branches is utilized in generating electricity from Dams of Al-Roseires, Sinnar, Khashm Al-Girba and Jabal Awliaa as well as in navigation and fishing. Storage of groundwater is estimated to be about (900) Billion meters utilized in irrigation purposes and civil usages.